Sunday, June 23, 2019

Power Amplifier Class-D Behringer B215D Schematic and PCB

Class D Power Amplifier circuit is on the rise especially in recent years due to its very high efficiency and relatively cheap price and Advantages of Class D Power Amplifier Circuits

The advantages of class D power amplifiers are:
  • Efficiency on supply power requirements
  • Simple physical size
  • Cool design and very practical
  • The heat produced is very minimal
Class D audio amplifier is a switching amplifier or PWM as previously explained. By applying the Switching model it can reduce the power loss in the final amplifier and allow for the efficiency of 90% - 95%. The input audio signal is used to modulate the PWM carrier signal that drives the final amplifier. Before being fed to the speaker, the Low Pass Filter (LPF) is passed to eliminate the high-frequency PWM carrier.

And on this occasion I will share the schematic along with the PCB layout for the D-class power amplifier, the Behringer B215D schematic power amplifier you can see below:

Power Amplifier Class-D Behringer B215D Schematic and PCB
My above scheme taken directly from the original scheme of the BEHRINGER B215D or can view more details you can visit this link:

And for PCB layout you can print it yourself because I also provide PDF files for PCB Power Amplifier Behringer B215D. PCB Layout with double layer boards:
Power Amplifier Class-D Behringer B215D PCB Layout
The PCB layout includes input balance, protection, and signal paneling. The components used are SMD packaged, specifically for IC IRS20957, you can buy the IC in the nearest electronic shop or online store. With cheap prices around 2 $ USD.

The amplifier uses 2 MOSFET transistors for the final and uses LPF with a 22uH core. For the power supply, you can use a power supply with a voltage of 50V - 90VDC with a current of at least 10Ampere. And the target power that can be produced by this amplifier is 600W RMS.
Power Amplifier Class-D Behringer B215D Schematic and PCB

Next, I will make and test this amplifier which I will wrap in one video that I will upload to DIY.


How to Calculate SMPS Transformer - Formula

How to Calculate SMPS Transformer - Formula
Some people may still be confused about how the rules for the SMPS transformer or commonly called ferrite transformers.

Previously there were several rules for selecting wire diameters based on the frequencies used.
AWG Cable transformer SMPS
After knowing the wire that is used based on the frequency of the MOSFET driver that is used now we see first the formula determines the primary winding (Np).
How to Calculate SMPS Transformer - Formula
Npri = primary winding
Vin = Effective Input Voltage
f = frequency
Bmax = maximum flux density 1200 - 2000
Ac = Effective Cross Sectional Area (see datasheet of each type of transformer core (example EI33 = 1.19, ETD39 = 1.25).

For example, the above formula is specifically for push-pull topology.

For example, I want to make an inverter transformer with specifications:
Effective Vinput = 12v
Minimum Vinput = 10,5v
Max output = 330v
Normal Vout = 220v

Driver frequency = 50KHz or 50000Hz
then the primary (Np) and secondary (Ns) are?
I previously set the Bmax I want to use is 1600 (range Bmax 1200-2000) and uses EI33 core type with Ac 1.19

Np = (12v x100000000) / (4x50000x1600x1,19)
Np = 3.15 my turn rounds to 3 turns

check the Bmax value again not to be less than or more than the adjusted range above. then if I turn rounds into 3 (Np = 3).
How to Calculate SMPS Transformer - Formula Bmax

Bmax = (12v x100000000) / (4x50000x3x1,19)
Bmax = 1680 (still in the range 1200-2000)

Now we calculate Primary Turn (Ns). because the output voltage can be adjusted or stabilized by setting the percentage duty cycle, if there is a voltage input drop to a minimum of 10.5v, the duty will increase to a maximum of 98% to maintain normal output stability at 220v or at least above 200v. For that N = 330v / (10,5v x 98% duty) = 32 so
Ns = N x Np
Ns = 32 x 3
Ns = 96 turns
How to winding SMPS Transformator

To optimize the voltage-current, you can double the number of wires in accordance with the power and capacity of the bobbin.
Suppose you make a transformer with an output power of 300 watts, then 300watt / 220v = 1.4Amper and see the wire that can be used with a 50KHz frequency in the AWG table above. for example the wire used is 0.5mm then 1.4 Amp / 0.5 = 2.8 or rounded down or upward to be 2 or 3 double wire and of course the coil must be 2 or 3 times more primary wire used than secondary because Vin 12v then 300w / 12v = 25A so that the primary transformer wire does not overheat it must be joined into several wires in accordance with the bobbin ability or the capacity of the transformer bobbin.

Thursday, June 13, 2019

Operational Amplifier, Types of Op Amp ICs and Characters

Various types and advantages of each offered by each component manufacturer to captivate the hearts of audio lovers. This is often done by audio hobbyists. Fiddling with and experimenting mutually components to get the best sound possible.

In the market, there are many choices of components, from the cheap to very expensive. The endpoint is a personal taste that determines the choice. Unfortunately, more and more standard components have decreased in quality. Instead of improving but getting worse. Finding quality components is difficult and expensive.
Op Amp IC NE5532  LM833 TL072 LF353 CA3140 CA3240 OPA2134 LM324 AD823 JRC4558 4558

Prioritize replacing active components that directly process audio signals such as ICs and transistors. Because the upgrade effect is likely to sound more real. After that, it is just a passive component that does not directly process signals such as power supply, tin, resistor, condensator, transformer, and others. The effect on sound repairs is very small or even the difference is not heard directly.
Do not let you get stuck to replace passive components with prices that are so expensive while the main IC that processes electronic signals is ignored. Don't also get caught up in suggestions. The easiest upgrade is to replace the IC op-amp in the preamp. Because just pull the IC from the socket and install a new IC. Sometimes it needs to be accompanied by changing a few components such as a resistor to adjust a new IC with an existing system.
Dual Op-Amp

Not all op-amps have super specifications such as very high slew rates, very wide bandwidth, very low noise, very low THD, and others sound good. For the record, only 2-3V / µs slew rate is needed for the op-amp so that it can cover all sound frequencies.
It's just that because the sound power is mainly music that is different, it takes at least 3 times the standard.

After all, replacing the standard op-amps like 741, 4558 and LM324 with the better ones, even the "super" ones, actually made a messy sound. Because this type of op-amp requires a special power supply and can be very unstable. For example, a good standard op-amp like NE5532 requires a decoupled supply (usually ceramic or mica) of no more than 2 inches (a super op-amp is a closer). Unlike 4558 which can run quite smoothly without decoupled. So if you want to replace the IC, you should first look at the PCB design, don't just replace it. Here are some IC op-amps quoted from several sources.

LM833 (dual) = Flat with a pretty good musical dynamics.
4558D (dual) = good but boomy bass, vocals hoarse, treble blunt.
NE5532 (dual) = Flat with good vocals on the ears and clear treble. Details are very good, but for some people, the bass feels less.
TL072 (dual) = Quite noisy, but with good dynamics.
LF353 (dual) = A lot of sound at the middle frequency, but quite natural and detailed. Treble and bass feel soft.
CA3140 (single) = Special amps with MOSFET input. Vocal and treble sounds are pretty good in the ears. Unfortunately, the dual version (CA3240) is only produced for the industrial and military circles.
LM324 (quad) = Noise is quite audible. Poor detail and blunt treble.
OPA2134 (dual) = the favorite op-amp for audiophiles with excellent staging and depth of music, but with less detail and musical dynamics.
AD823 (dual) = Very detailed and very natural, great dynamics, with very clear bass and treble.

And some other types of op-amp ic that you can try with the advantages and disadvantages.
CA3080 = Dual Transconductance (LM3080). (8 pins)
CA3130T = Single op-amp MOSFET uncompensated. (8 pin)
CA3130E = Single op-amp MOSFET/bipolar/compensated. (8 pin)
CA3140E = MOSFET LM741 pin compatible. (8 pin)
CA3160E = Single op-amp. (8 pin)
CA3240E-1 = Dual op-amp. (14 pin)
CA5130E = Single op-amp. (8 pin)
CA5160E = Single op-amp. (8 pin)
ICL7611D = Single low-power op-amp. (8 pin)
ICL7641E = Quad low-power op-amp. (14 pin)
ICL7642E = Quad low-power op-amp. (14 pin)
ICL7650S = Chopper stabilised op-amp. (14 pin)
ICL7652C = Chopper stabilised op-amp. (14 pin)
LF347N = Quad high-performance op-amp. (14 pin)
LF351N = Single high-performance op-amp. (8 pin)
LF353N = Dual high-performance op-amp. (8 pin)
LF355N = Single high-performance op-amp. (8 pin)
LM10CLN = Dual Low-voltage compensated with reference. (8 pin)
LM301N = Single general-purpose op-amp. (8 pin)
LM301AN = General purpose uncompensated. (8 pin)
LM308N = Single low-drift op-amp. (8 pin)
LM324N = Quad low-power compensated. (8 pin)
LM358N = Dual low-power compensated. (8 pin)
LM614 = Quad Operational Amplifier and Adjustable Reference. (16 pin)
LM741 = Single General purpose uncompensated. ( 8 pin)
LM833N = Dual low-noise Hi-Fi Audio compensated. (8 pin)
LM1360N = Dual transconductance. (16 pin)
LM1458N = Dual general-purpose compensated. (8 pin)
LM3900N = Norton Quad Current Differencing. (14 pin)
LM627CN = Precision low-noise. (8 pin)
NE531N = Single high-performance. (8 pin) 
NE5532 = Dual low-noise. (8 pin)
NE5534P = Single Low-noise high-output. (8 pin)
NE5539 = Single wide-band. (14 pin)
OP27 = Low-noise precision (8 pin)
RC4558P = Dual high-performance. (8 pin)
TL061CP = Single low-power. (8 pin)
TL062CP = Dual low-power. (8 pin)
TL064CN = Quad low-power. (14 pin)
TL071CP = Single low-noise. (8 pin)
TL072CP = Dual low-noise. (8 pin)
TL074CN = Quad low-noise. (14 pin)
TL081CP = Single high-performance. (8 pin)
TL082CP = Dual high-performance. (8 pin)
TL084CN = Quad high-performance. (14 pin)
TLC251 = Low-voltage Power CMOS. (8 pin)
UA4136 = GP low-noise. (14 pin)
741 = Single General purpose uncompensated. (8 pin)
741S = Single High-speed. (8 pin)
747 = Dual general-purpose. (8 pin)
748 = Single general-purpose. (8 pin)
LM759 = Power op-amp. (4 pin) 

Of all the ic above there are some that have the same pinout. There are also a few different ones. So please check the datasheet before you install it. So that the IC op-amp can work according to its function. Maybe some of them are rare and difficult to get. You can search for other types of IC that have the same character.

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Power Amplifier APEX BA1200 PCB Layout PDF

Hello friends Elcircuit, this time I will share a PCB layout design for power amplifier BA1200 APEX, this is a driver PCB power amp, you must add the final transistor for this amplifier. The output power is quite large if it is supported by an adequate power supply and final transistor. To use a power supply you can use 45VDC - 90VDC. In addition, you can use the Toshiba 2SC5200 / 2SA1943 final transistor with 14 sets. The power produced can reach 1500W. And this amplifier is very suitable for bass amplifiers or for the use of subwoofer speakers.

Following is PCB Layout from APEX BA1200, to make it easier to make PCBs I provide files in PDF format that you can download at the end of the post.

Power Amplifier APEX BA1200 PCB Layout PDF


Monday, June 03, 2019

Class-D Amplifier Yamaha YDA138

Hello friends, on this occasion I will share the power amplifier scheme using the Yamaha YDA-138 class D power amplifier chip and also class AB amplifier headphones which are included in the YDA138 chip.
The following is the YDA138 Class-D Yamaha Amplifier power amplifier schematic:
Yamaha YDA138 Class-D Amplifier Schematic Diagram circuit diagram
This amplifier is very suitable for use in the room, using 6-8 inch speakers, the power that can be produced by this amplifier is around 10W RMS at 4-ohm load. And the above scheme is specifically for the use of 4-ohm speakers because in the LPF section it uses 470N with a 10uH inductor. For more details, you can also see the IC YDA 133 datasheet.

Because I want to make an amplifier with good sound quality, I use an audio grade component. Check out the video making for this amplifier.

In the video, I use a power supply with a battery so that it can be made portable for its D-class amplifiers and for its headphone headphones. My battery uses 3 18650 with a 4.2V 3Ah voltage each so it can produce 12.6V voltage, and I give BMS (Battery Management System) to make it safer. For charging can use a voltage of 13.8V, these amplifiers can run up to 24 hours nonstop using a 4 ohm 6-inch speaker. in full load, this amplifier only consumes no more than 3W.

If you are interested in making this amplifier, I provide Gerber files to download, and you can order PCBs at the PCB manufacturing plant.

The following PCB Layout Class-D Amplifier Yamaha YDA138 

Class-D Amplifier Yamaha YDA138

Class-D Amplifier Yamaha YDA138 PCB
Class-D Amplifier Yamaha YDA138 Layout PCB
PCB Class-D Amplifier Yamaha YDA138 Gerber

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Power Amplifier SOCL506 Driver PCB Layout

This SOCL 506 power amplifier has been tested to be very reliable to be used as a field sound system or also a power amplifier that is intended for the room because its character is flat at all frequencies and is very easy to set.

This SOCL 506 power amplifier has a very good performance and also has decent power to compensate for some sound systems with high prices, it can be several times, this can save you budget for DIY'ers who want to have a reliable power but it's quite affordable, you can make the Amplifier SOCL 506 PCB Layout. In the picture below, the PCB has also been provided in the form of a PDF file so that friends can directly print it according to size.

Power Amplifier SOCL506 Driver PCB Layout
This Power Amplifier circuit can be supplied with a symmetrical voltage up to 90VDC, and can be added to the final transistor in order to control large power up to 1200W RMS. You can use a final transistor such as Toshiba 2SC5200 / 2SA1943 or NJW, or another with a large transistor.

Power Amplifier SOCL506 Driver PCB Layout 

See also
Super OCL Amplifier 500W RMS

Marshal V.120PA Power Amplifier PCB Layout

Hello Electronic DIY'ers, on this occasion I will share a PCB Layout file for Marshal V.120PA power amplifier. Where this power amplifier circuit is very suitable for guitar amplifiers, the power output can reach 100W with an adequate power supply, you can use a symmetrical power supply, ranging from a voltage of 25VDC-45VDC, a minimum of 5 amps
Let's just take a look at the PCB Layout image for the top and bottom. And for PDF files you can download at the end of the post.
Marshal V.120PA Power Amplifier PCB Layout Guitar Amplifier
Top Silkscreen

Marshal V.120PA Power Amplifier PCB Layout Guitar Amplifier
Bottom Copper


Sunday, May 12, 2019


Hello DIY'ers,  I will share the schematic and PCB layout for Fullbridge with PFC (Power Factor Correction) Switching Mode Power Supply. I will not explain in more detail this SMPS, you can immediately try this SMPS with PCB Layout below. This SMPS can be supplied with varying input voltages, ie between AC voltages between 90 - 265V, SMPS is still able to provide a stable output voltage. But also need to be considered the components used must be good, and the transformer must be in accordance with a calculation such as a schematic, how to roll the transformer must also be good and tight. Symmetrical 90V DC output voltage.

Schematic SMPS Fullbridge PFC 4kVA:

PCB Layout SMPS Fullbridge PFC, you can download PDF files at the end of the post.

Saturday, May 11, 2019

PCB Layout Super Gainclone Amplifier LM3886

Hello DiY'ers, at this time I will share PCB Layout design in Gerber file for Power Amplifier circuit LM3886, this is Super Gainclone Amplifier LM3886 and PCB is very simple and mini design, like a pin to pin soldering. So it's very good PCB design for you LM3886 Gainclone amp.
PCB Layout Super Gainclone Amplifier LM3886

PCB Layout Super Gainclone Amplifier LM3886

PCB Layout tested:
Gerber File PCB Layout Super Gainclone Amplifier LM3886

Tuesday, May 07, 2019

Power Amplifier APEX FX100 PCB

APEX Power Amplifier This FX100 power amplifier has been tested and is very good among audio amplifier lovers. I will share a little about this power amplifier precisely for the manufacture of traditional PCBs, usually using transfer paper to transfer the layout to the PCB. The following is a picture of the APEX FX100 layout:
Power Amplifier APEX FX100 PCB
PCB Dimension 80.5x84mm

You can download the PDF file at the link below:
PCB Layout Apex FX100 PDF