Saturday, June 30, 2012

Dayton Audio 150W Power Amplifier

Dayton Audio's versitile APA150 can liberate 75 watts into 2 channels, or else 150 watts into 8 ohms what time hard to suspension bridge-mono mode. A built-all the rage, switchable low-pass filter makes this a huge subwoofer amp, and bursting range line-level outputs allow in lieu of bi-amp configurations.

Dayton Audio 150W Power Amplifier

Technical Details :
close to racket-uninhibited fan company in support of reach deal with applications
lustrous prevailing design looks safe participating in a few audio structure
shrill current, discrete output transistors so as to run cool and subdued
flexible 50-150 Hz low pass crossover gives you the span control you need

Dayton Audio APA150 150W Power Amplifier

Friday, June 29, 2012

Error Correction Output Stage for Mosfet and BJT Power Amplifier

For best results, any active device with the exception of the output transistors operating in class A. This is to avoid bias to saturate or block the entrance to all the clipping level, should be selected. This raises some difficulties for a BJT amplifier, where (to stay in Class A) driver stage collector currents, the base of BJT output current at maximum output current (ie in our case some of 10A) No is not exceeded. Therefore, the overall bias regime redesigned to allow space for the swing base BJT output current.

Error Correction Output Stage for Mosfet and BJT Power Amplifier

Even in these circumstances, the power dissipation in the driver’s relevant and it is doubtful if a heat sink on board (as in our design side MOSFET included) help, if maximum performance is desired 200W into 4 ohms. It is therefore assumed that the power BJT design based on our application can not be more than one goal and 100W/4ohm 50W/8ohm. Of course, for such relatively modest achievements, it is not necessary to install three pairs of output devices, a pair of (ex) MJL4281/MJL4302 or equivalent work will be done.

Adjusting the balance Hawks Word is a double potentiometer (minimum of ten rounds) with more than 0.5% of correspondence between the sections. We replaced R20 and R81 with a 2K potentiometer Bourns 10 turns and adjusted for minimum distortion 20kHz Open Loop. You will find that the minimum is strongly dependent on the frequency, always adapting to at least the higher frequency in the audible range. At low frequencies, the feedback loop gain in reducing DHT levels to help you. Measured values ??and replace the potentiometer with fixed resistors.

The minimum is usually very close, if you need 0.5% or better precision resistors. The aim should be to bring the open-loop THD-20 below 0.01% to 10 Vrms input level. We built four previous CE FPO advice and got the last open-loop THD-20-values ??at 0.0065% 0.0075% 0.0090% and 0.012% (the latter, we can not source of precision resistors required values).

The network output Zobel is the stability amps together. For the same reasons, shoud not be 2UH air core output inductor.

The error amplifier frequency compensation C17 is the signal ground of the amplifier that takes full power to the ground. It is for reasons of stability and provide a grounding shield for feedback (output port).

High-End Power Amplifier Wiring Circuit


As the causes of the heat sink mounting surface to approximately 6 mm from the edge of the circle are fixed, assuming that the amplifier circuits mounted directly on the rails. This means that the leads of the transistors must be folded twice, so they are positioned properly, without a permanent mechanical stress in transistors. For high output transistors, the first corner a little closer to the plastic packaging than expected (in the wide part), otherwise the son of the rails or not to strike. Another possibility, which has the disadvantage that it weakens the structure, it is to grind enough metal in appropriate locations, to provide sufficient clearance. We have consciously rejected that option.

High-End Power Amplifier Wiring Diagram

Once you have taken on these details and transistors can be easily placed on the free flat heatsink with her son through the holes in the circuit you can use the locations of the holes on the back mark of the radiators. Of course you must do so before the transistors are soldered to the track but is according to the holes for the final determination of the amplification circuits made in the base plate. Once the output transistors and their driver were mounted on the heat sink and soldered to the boards, the bottom plate can be removed easily.

Be careful not too much force on the terminals of the transistors, if the plates are exposed in this way.
Power transistors T14 and T15 must be mounted on heatsink bs with insulators (mica discs), while the other three transistors (Til, T12 and T13) can be screwed directly onto the heat sink. Make sure you use thermal paste to all the transistors.

After all the holes for the remaining circuits, transformers, switches and lights (front) and the ventilation slots in the chassis, you can screw up everything and you install the wiring.

Use well-designed audio cable connected to the input of the amplifier boards on the terminals in the vicinity of the inputs on the board overdrive display. With the two ground terminals to the input jacks for connecting the housing to the grounds of the two channels. This will avoid creating loops. The inputs to the outputs of the amplifier are in the middle of the board control overdrive removed. The best way to connect, to use thin, flexible cable, to connect the output jacks.

Amplifier 200W 2SJ201 2SK1530

Amplifier 200W 2SJ201 2SK1530
Aussieamps nxV200 MOSFET with the V-Fet 2SJ201 2SK1530 pair modules Aussieamps compact and powerful amplifiers with a craftsman to two amps for stereo bi-amping his large two-way speakers were purchased to build. He approached me, power supplies, design, assemble and deliver housing.

I modulised construction of: mounting the amplifier modules to the heat sink, the construction of the CCTS rectifier. on a strip of day, the Assembly speaker binding posts, captured power cord, fuse, on / off switch and input jacks on the rear panel of the amplifier and the installation of the transformer and large capacitors (20 uf 000 by rail).

Aussieamps nxV200 V-Fet Amplifier 200W 2SJ201 2SK1530 compact and powerful. It took two days just to marking and drilling of the case and HS do. And four days to assemble the first amplifier. The second amplifier just two days. Oxygen-free copper wire was used for the connection and the son of the signal. Brass cones were attached to the feet, and the case is heavy gauge steel.

PCB Layout Power Amplifier LM4780

I get different boards for LM4780 based amplifier designed when I was several samples from National Semiconductor. I was one-sided copper board to bring in my market, so I created the board on one side only.

This is the first. I build them from scratch. Study the pin details of LM4780 and I draw on the paper presented, as well as the basic circuit schematic.

A little tuning of the power supply PCB for thicker tracks.

PCB Layout Power Amplifier LM4780
PCB Layout Power Amplifier LM4780
But there was a major obstacle – 6 nos of jumper wires connecting the IC. I wanted to avoid, so I designed the new board. A very good thing I came to know about from DiyAudio, was the use of n / c pins. So this was all new, third version. It turned out that the most compact and straight layout. I have about 10 PCBs of this one.

This is the latest. I tried two other bridges in V++ wiring systems and further thicken the power to remove traces. Mmm, still thinking to go for a different version, this time a little more spacious. Troubleshooting can be difficult to compact circuit boards.

Car Audio Amplifier Instalation Guide

Amplifier and speakers wiring. The amplifier does not always come with wire connection. You need a kit amp wiring harness sold separately. It is important to adjust the harness to the vehicle you have, to the right frequency and sound. The red wires (positive) is thicker than black (ground). A 12 -, 10 – or 8-gauge wire or lower is better sound quality.

Car Audio Amplifier Instalation Guide

Connecting the power cable and head unit. Disconnect the negative battery cable car, then the positive. Connect the red amplifier (positive) to the positive battery cable. Strip one end of the thread about half an inch and squeeze the cable connector U-Connect the positive terminal of the battery and tighten. Slide the other end through the firewall of your car, which is located towards the rear under the hood. Drag the interior and on the back of the torso. You may need to unscrew the bottom plate on each side and pull the seat back to move the thread. Black lead to an O-ring and screws for the metal of the cars to squeeze into the trunk.

Check if your head unit has suspended two AV, the ends of the women. If not, you have to buy one and have it installed. AV wire supplied with the kit must be long enough to reach from the amplifier in the trunk of the radio. Connect the ends of the red and white male to the female ends of the amplifier and the radio. Then connect the son of the subwoofer amplifier. Connect the negative terminal of the battery.

Turn the key to your car and listen to the radio at low volume. Not at full power crank. You get a distorted sound, or a speaker can blow the air. You will feel the vibration in the car audio system.

1000 Watts Power Amplifier - 2SA1216 2SC2922

The DIY 1000 Watts Millenium Amplifier Sanken Power Transistors 2SA1216 2SC2922
Has also shown live on board DC power (a second kind of order point, removable) and effective protection of short circuit. A system with new signal amplifier bias at + / – 100 volts, made completely safe for millennium end of the operation of our limits: + / – 70 volts and results in the maximum specified output power of 250 watts 8 ohms. The circuit is also stable with only + / – 15 volts and can then operate at only 6 Watts output power.

1000 Watts 2SA1216 2SC2922
This Millenium Amplifier Sanken Power Transistors 2SA1216 2SC2922 in bridge mode at up to 1000 watts 8 ohms and 2000 watts into 4 ohms can be achieved without conversion circuits. This is due to the input circuit of the Millennium, both positive and negative signal inputs. Even for the balanced XLR connector. (The common mode rejection exceeds 90 dB).

No IC found in the signal path (only for DC power and short circuit protection are used), no feedback at all, not even the locals, makes this amp sound good with any kind of high speakers.

The DIY 1000 Watts Millenium Amplifier Sanken Power Transistors 2SA1216 2SC2922 circuit diagram shows how the simple and ingenious principle of this amplifier is designed. No feedback loops (100% non-return), no capacitors or IC in the signal path. The section of the frequency response from DC to 500,000 Hz (0-3 dB), so that each signal of the music from the deepest bass to the highest of the air flows freely through the end of the millennium come to the ears.

Protection of short circuit 1000 Watts Millenium Amplifier Sanken Power Transistors 2SA1216 2SC2922 does not affect the signal. It monitors only the currect consumed by the speakers. If overloaded, the signal for a few seconds will be closed. Then the end will try again on line, but if it is still a little bit, it’s right next to the other for a few seconds. If staying low, the amplifier wait for days, until the load conditions are acceptable. Then he will play as if nothing had happened! It is a very efficient system overload protection, which we copied from our range of professional PA amplifiers.

Thank you for the construction of the reinforcement, which can in many ways innovative technology, we offer a kit amplifier platform that sets the boundaries of musicality always easy and fluid with great precision audio quality.
These are items that you would normally pay up to 10 times higher prices would be compared to what the final cost of the Millennium, in part, because you assemble yourself, saving labor costs.

What would replace the sound quality of these come into force in a way that makes the amplifier. his thin and hard turning level, and also a significant loss of detail at higher levels in the lower levels compared. This is because the number of errors, of course, increases with the power to correct.

In non-feedback amplifier, there is no circuit to the input compared with the output signal. Therefore, the designer must ensure that no distortion occurs not at any stage of the amplifier. This requires more use of linear components and high quality available worldwide. Instead of the High-High-Gain Amplifier Installation normal distortion, amplifier non-response was 3.2 gain stages, low distortion and low, are cascading the gain entirely adequate.

This kind of amplifier does not have the problems described above, and will sound exactly the same in high and low. Also revealed it will provide, add a better control of the bass speakers, and their best performance. This is because when the electricity demand of membranes or decellerate you accelerate, it can jump from the stage at a time. It is not provided because of the current increase – more correction in the amplifier circuit together.

In an amplifier feedback loop normal, the extra electricity to keep the output voltage must be at the right level based on the input voltage through the feedback loop provided. I think now return you to understand the benefits of the art of no. To avoid that, to correct the distortion of the feedback loops, we use more linear power transistors in the world: SANKEN 2SA1216 2SC2922

Thursday, June 28, 2012

5.1 Classic Home Theater System - Energy

Low Distortion and Resonance - spokesman method is distortion- otherwise resonance-without charge, but Energy has achieved a significantly decrease distortion level, a plainly audible perfection.


Classic Home Theater System

The Take Classic 5.1 home theater system also offers terrific performance and great features:

  • Our patented Convergent Source Module (CSM) 3-edge your way poly-titanium woofer and .75-inch hyperbolic aluminum-field tweeter -the kindness of Energy speakers
  • Patented corrugated Elliptical Surround woofers create from top to toe efficiency, low distortion
  • An aluminum auditorium tweeter on behalf of sonic accuracy
  • Front and rear venting for additional powerful low response
Take Classic raises the piece for 5.1 narrator classification performance. It includes a powerful 200-watt subwoofer with a front-firing seaport, 8-shuffle driver and wavy Elliptical Surround™ in support of deep with the intention of you feel when much as hear. The Convergent Source Module (CSM), with its 3-shuffle poly-titanium woofer and .75-inch hyperbolic aluminum-pitch tweeter, focuses sound for clearer dialogue and stirring melody. The CSM gives soundtracks a dynamic frequency range and a colossal soundstage, used for smooth, realistic sound from every one satellite lecturer and the base channel. song and motion picture lovers rejoice. Take Classic puts the passion back into your favorite films.
Exclusive Energy® Brand Technologies

Convergent Source Module
The Convergent Source Module, before CSM, provides broad dispersion, low distortion and amazing midrange performance. The lecturer's midrange and tweeter are positioned inside close proximity to individual an alternative and accomplish seeing that a single source, by this means increasing overall dispersion and falling some lobing effect. The chambering of the middle and tweeter lowers the driver's resonance, plummeting distortion.

wavy Elliptical Surround knowledge
Energy's patented ridged Elliptical Surround technology (U.S. patent #6,725,967, Canadian patent #2,407,123) increases excursion, eliminates distortion and raises efficiency on woofers and subwoofers. The Elliptical Surround encompasses the conduit, allowing it to move identically concerning both instructions, follow-on in come up to nil distortion. And while standard designs are often plagued with surround dimpling, which causes them to give off in and off of segment and distort on all listening levels, Energy's designs aren't influenced by dimpling on all, as a substitute proprietary grooved Elliptical Surround expertise allows representing a better conduit come up, resultant trendy greater efficiency. This design as well lets the conduit do greater crest to peak movement, in this way allowing it to travel added than bend in half the distance of the competition. These attributes enable Energy woofers and subwoofers to move incredible amounts of air, ultimately allowing them to joke about drop frequencies with greater low lean-to and fidelity.

come again?'s voguish the Box
A 6-example, soaring spin black place of Energy Take Classic 5.1 speakers: 4-Take satellite speakers, 1-faultlessly matched Take interior channel spokeswoman, 1-perfectly matched Take powered subwoofer; 1-owners guide.

Technical Specifications
  • Frequency Response - Sat: 115Hz-20KHz; Center: 110Hz-20KHz; Subwoofer: 33Hz-150Hz +/- 3dB
  • Crossover purpose - 2.9 kHz
  • Sensitivity - 89dB
  • Power use - Sat & core: 100 Watts; Subwoofer: 200 Watts
  • Recommended Amplifier Power - 20 - 100 Watts RMS (permanent)
  • Impedance - 8-ohm compatible
  • Subwoofer adaptable Low Pass Filter - 40Hz-150Hz @ 18dB/octave
  • Tweeter - ¾-shuffle (19 mm) Hyperbolic™ aluminum-ground
  • Woofer - Sat & crux: 3-edge your way poly-titanium; junior: 8" IM cone-shaped tool with Patented grooved Elliptical Surround
  • Dimensions (inches) - Sat: 6 7/8 x 4 1/8 x 4 1/8; Center: 4 1/8 x 10 1/4 x 4 1/8; Subwoofer: 12 5/8 x 12 5/8 x 12 5/8 (add 2 1/6" pro feet)
  • power - Sat: 2.9 lbs; foundation: 3.2 lbs; Subwoofer: 19.7 lbs

Performance Tips: 
The center channel spokeswoman needs to be alive centrally located so so as to the dialogue appears to be approach from the center of the screen. It needs to be more than or else underneath the overseer, while faithfully to it as feasible. If you'on the subject of using a rear projection television, the nearly all likely option is to place it over the screen. If you say a front projection method, you have choices-rack mounting, otherwise placement on furniture, in support of illustration. It is principal, though, to place the orator so to facilitate its front frame is even with the edge of the shelf or else stand underneath it. unsolicited diffraction occurs whilst the foundation channel is too far back into a cabinet or else other exterior with edges with the aim of possibly will impede sound dispersion.

In support of not here or else utterly front channels, the distance concerning the speakers be supposed to live 6-8 feet on smallest amount for the greatest stereo imaging. The optimum extent identity is rectangular, with the speakers along solitary of the shorter walls, facing the opposite margin. If probable, figure out not place speakers hostile to a fence or else by rear of a bookshelf; corner placement is generally the most evil option. Try to keep the speakers-especially rear vented models-next to smallest amount two feet from the plane behind it, save you manipulation a vent plug. pro superlative results mounting on a rear cage up, pose the speakers so they flank the major listening area and item with regard to the front of the opportunity. They be supposed to be situated raised to a height of approximately six feet and ought to ideally give a window of six feet involving them.

The three a good number normal subwoofer locations include corners (which can upshot taking part in boomy otherwise exaggerated low frequency response), placement along a mountain, away from the corner (producing moderate low performance with increased fidelity terminated corner placement), otherwise beside a front spokeswoman (creating a better blend with the front speaker, but sacrificing overall volume). Experimentation with subwoofer placement is highly encouraged; slight adjustments can create giant differences clothed in sound reproduction. To test subwoofer placement, install it in the short term in your chief listening attitude and march around the listening space while on stage a familiar bit of melody until you catch the most excellent sounding position.

Simple LED lights Circuit for Motorcycles

Lamp type LED has several advantages compared with the usual light when the applied on a motorcycle. In addition to more efficient battery when compared with normal hologen lamps, LED also has several other advantages, such as light more evenly and provide a luxurious feel to the vehicle.

The following are examples of simple creations that you can apply to decorate your motorcycle using the LED.
Simple LED lights Circuit for Motorcycles

For this circuit is recommended only as a replacement motorcycle brake lights or city lights with the electrical source from the battery. Indeed in the market has many available variations of LED lights that can be used as brake lights or disco lights, but maybe some people would be proud if his own creative, hopefully circuit schemes that we present above can assist you in creating.

Motorcycle LED Lights Circuit

Motorcycle LED Lights series is so simple that it only uses a few components, but the results are very satisfactory. Power consumption is small enough 6 Volt course is suitable for your motorcycle.

The 555 circuit lower than is a flashing bicycle light powered with four C,D or else AA cells (6 volts). Two sets of 20 LEDs yearn for alternately glimmer by the side of approximately 4.7 cycles for every flash using RC morals publicized (4.7K pro R1, 150K for R2 and a 1uF capacitor). epoch intervals for the two lamps are in this area 107 milliseconds (T1, high LEDs) and 104 milliseconds (T2 junior LEDs). Two transistors are used to provide extra current away from the 200 mA limit of the 555 timer. A single LED is placed in vogue run with the center of the PNP transistor so with the aim of the inferior 20 LEDs ride inedible at what time the 555 output goes superior in the course of the T1 instance interval. The high output level of the 555 timer is 1.7 volts fewer than the supply voltage.

Motorcycle LED Lights

tallying the LED increases the accelerate voltage mandatory designed for the PNP transistor to a propos 2.7 volts so to the 1.7 volt difference from supply to the output is insufficient to turn on the transistor. both LED is supplied with about 20mA of current for a complete of 220mA. The circuit must labor with bonus LEDs up to about 40 used for both cluster, before 81 total. The circuit resolve too work with fewer LEDs so it possibly will come to pass assembled and tested with righteous 5 LEDs (two groups of two plus solitary) earlier than calculation the others.

Polk Audio 100W Subwoofer

The PSW10 subwoofer fills indoors the foundation outcome of your institution acting usage, so your foremost speakers don't hold to put on deep duty, as an alternative having solitary to procreate the normal and climax frequencies. If you'a propos looking pro your original subwoofer, look rejection extra than the PSW10. It's a horrible solution for completing your sound approach and spirit take your viewing experience, movies, games and tube to a top level of enjoyment.

Polk Audio 100W Subwoofer

Dynamic Balance® Woofer Design. Polk perfected the method of analyzing a presenter's minuscule behavior with laser Interferometry. With with the aim of in sequence during offer, Polk engineers limited the ideal combination of resources, geometry and construction techniques to factually “song unconscious” superfluous resonance. The product is a subwoofer with the intention of delivers innocent, distortion uncontrolled deep low.

Klippel Optimized Woofer. Using a state-of-the-drawing Klippel Distortion Analyzer, Polk engineers optimized the woofer's motor form, voice coil alignment and suspension, bringing you the preeminent on the cards performance even next to the generally extreme listening levels.

Composite Polymer funnel We don't expenditure reduced paper cardboard woofers. This is the real deal and part of why the PSW 10 subwoofer outperforms the competition.

Solar charger circuit project

To take advantage of sunlight shining on the earth can continue to be utilized to serve as a power source so that we can at least save on electricity prices continuing to rise, below is one of a series of simple power plant can be created and used to fill your motorcycle battery or for emergency lights.

The circuit scheme of Solar Power Generation

Solar charger circuit project

How it Works series:
Sunlight is received by the solar panels are then processed into electricity, but electricity generated from each panel is still too small where the 8 Cell Panel arranged in series only mrnghasilkan voltage of approximately 4 volts with a current 200 mA.
nah therefore required an electronic circuit to increase the voltage and current enough to be used as a Battery Charger.
Electronic Rangakain act as a series of DC to DC Inverter (DC to DC Inverter), which was built by two pieces of Capacitor, Resistor 1, a transistor, a diode, and a coil which is the point of the creation of this series.

The circuit was built with a single oscillator system (blocking oscillator) which was built by the transistor and a coil in which the primary winding totaling 45 turns and 15 turns in the secondary as feedback to provide the voltage at the base of the transistor output of the primary winding connected to the diode and used to The battery charging.

When the circuit is coupled with the Emergency Neon Lights will certainly get enough voltage to light at night for free. because its batteries during the day in charge by the sun.

The success of this experiment is a way of making a coil which is the same way with the topic of emergency fluorescent lights
.
List of Components
  • 8 cell 0.5v 200 mA solar panel (sold in many electronics stores) or make use of solar panels used a calculator that is damaged / not used anymore you dismantle it and take solarcell
  • Capacitor 100 UF
  • Capacitor 10 UF
  • Transistor TIP 31 or similar
  • Resistor 1 K
  • Diode BY 207 (Diada 5 Ampere) or similar
  • Accu Motor.
  • Approximately 3 meters of 0.25 mm diameter wire email.>
  • Ferite rods are frequently used in radio-AM radio.

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

1200 Watt Subwoofer - Energy ESW-M8 NA

One of the most important speakers in any system, the subwoofer is often relegated to a back corner and nearly forgotten. At Energy, however, we invest a great deal of design time and effort into building the industry’s best subwoofers, offering unparalleled performance and flexibility. The ESW-M8 is no exception. The ESW-M8 subwoofer delivers deep, accurate effects with 1200 peak watts of room-filling power—all from a 9-inch cube.

The ESW-M8 features an 8-inch anodized aluminum cone woofer with Ribbed Elliptical Surround for tight and powerful bass response and two 8-inch anodized aluminum cone passive radiators that eliminate port noise that allows for deep bass extension. With a variable low pass filter of 50Hz-200Hz, you get versatile blending using the built-in crossover or your surround processor. The furniture grade high gloss black cabinet provides versatility and will blend into your décor. It’s the ideal companion to any front, center, and surround channels, whether you’re looking to achieve a 5.1 system or a 5.1 on the Richter scale.

Ribbed Elliptical Surround

This tiny beast features our patented Ribbed Elliptical Surrounds, which mates perfectly with a powerful amplifier to provide your audio experience with plenty of pure bass. The Ribbed Elliptical Surrounds that encircle Energy's products' woofers are unlike any other. By changing the shape of the speaker surround to an ellipse, rather than the traditional "half roll," distortion is reduced dramatically. Side benefits include increased excursion and larger piston area, allowing for greater efficiency. Energy's cast basket woofers also feature this technology, allowing the surround to stretch and contract as it moves, eliminating dimpling.

Selectable Auto Power Switch

The featured power switch can be set to either On, Off or Auto. If the switch is in the Off position, the subwoofer will not power up. If the switch is in the On position, it will constantly remain on. If the switch is set to the Auto position, when a signal is present the subwoofer will turn on and will automatically turn off several minutes after a signal is no longer present.

Low-Pass Filter and Phase Controls

The low-pass filter control allows for the adjustment of the low-pass filter. Adjustments can infinitely be made from 50Hz to 200Hz. This will determine the highest frequency that the subwoofer will reproduce for a custom sound fitted to your room. Setting the crossover too low will create a gap between the frequency response of the front speakers and that of the subwoofer, while setting the crossover frequency too high will create a doubling of certain frequencies, making the music sound boomy.

The phase control switch allows for the adjustment of the phase of the subwoofer, in relation to the speakers used in your system, from 0 to 180 degrees, to give your home theater system the right balance. This control ensures that the subwoofer operates in phase with the rest of the system, as an out of phase subwoofer will either sound like it is lacking in bass performance or that its timing is off. This setting will be determined by your listening position, the characteristics of your listening room and its interaction with your Energy subwoofer.

About Energy

Energy, admittedly, is a bold name for a speaker. Fortunately for you, you’re looking at some highly dynamic audio generators. We’re talking crystal clear dialogue. Big booms, bangs, and ka-thuds from your favorite flicks. And music that’ll rock your soul. That’s what you get when teams of dedicated engineers work alongside expert designers. For more than 30 years, they’ve been researching the scientific principles of sound and using the most modern materials available. They’ve fine-tuned each speaker according to the three major aspects of loudspeaker performance: wide dispersion, low distortion, and flat frequency response. And they’ve customized and re-customized every little component, resulting in one-of-a-kind modifications like our patented Ribbed Elliptical Surrounds, for better bass, and the Convergent Source Module (CSM), for accurate sound. And, while all that audio research is great, in the end all that matters is that when you crank the volume, what you’ll hear is sound perfected. What you’ll feel is pure Energy.

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Telephone Headgear Circuit Diagram

Acompact, inexpensive and low component count telecom head- set can be constructed using two readily available transistors and a few other electronic components. This circuit is very useful for hands-free operation of EPABX and pager communication. Since the circuit draws very little current, it is ideal for parallel operation with electronic telephone set. 

Telephone Headgear Circuit Diagram

Working of the circuit is simple and straightforward. Resistor R1 and an ordinary neon glow- lamp forms a complete visual ringer circuit. This simple arrangement does not require a DC blocking capacitor because, under idle conditions, the telephone line voltage is insufficient to ionise the neon gas and thus the lamp does not light. Only when the ring signal is being received, it flashes at the ringing rate to indicate an incoming call. The bridge rectifier using diodes D1 through D4 acts as a polarity guard which protects the electronic circuit from any changes in the telephone line polarity. 

Zener diode D5 at the output of this bridge rectifier is used for additional circuit protection. Section comprising transistor T1, resistors R2, R3 and zener diode D6 forms a constant voltage regulator that provides a low voltage output of about 5 volts. Dial tone and speech signals from exchange are coupled to the receiving sound amplifier stage built around transistors T2 and related parts, i.e. resistors R7, R6 and capacitor C5. Amplified signals from collector of transistor T2 are connected to dynamic receiver RT-200 (used as earpiece) via capacitor C7. A condenser microphone, connected as shown in the circuit, is used as transmitter. Audio signals developed across the microphone are coupled to the base of transistor T1 via capacitor C3. Resistor R4 determines the DC bias required for the microphone. After amplification by transistor T1, the audio signals are coupled to the telephone lines via the diode bridge. The whole circuit can be wired on a very small PCB and housed in a medium size headphone, as shown in the illustration. For better results at low line currents, value of resistor R2 may be reduced after testing

Monday, June 25, 2012

Very Simple Audio Mixer Circuit

A very simple audio mixer can be designed using this circuit diagram electronic project. Audio mixing is normally performed by a mixer with virtual ground, in which the various input signals are applied through series resistors to virtual ground, that at the inverting input of operational amplifier. 

Very Simple Audio Mixer Cir cuit Circuits

The audio mixer is a little different and uses the principle of common ground, the input voltages are converted into alternating current which, when summed, is the AC component of the collector. In the case of a common base configuration, emitter impedance is small and works as a virtual ground that is making it impossible to crosstalk between different input signals. The output signal is taken from the collector of Q1. Amplification circuit is equal to R6 + Ri, where Ri is the input resistance (= one of the resistances RI ... R5). The T1's emitter circuit has been provided a power source consisting of T2 and T3.

Q1's base voltage is set by resistors R7 and R8. Ensure that the capacitor C1 of T1 to be effectively disconnected.
Number of entries can be modified, increased or decreased as desired.

Saturday, June 23, 2012

Stereo PC Speaker Powered USB Speaker


This is the circuit diagram of USB powered computer speaker, or it widely known as multimedia speakers for PCs. The circuit has single-chipbased design, low-voltage electrical power supply, compatibility with USB power from computer, simple heat-sinking, inexpensive, large flexibility and wide temperature tolerance.

At the heart of the circuit is IC TDA2822M. This IC is, actually, monolithic type in 8-lead mini DIP (Dual Inline Package). It’s designed for use as a dual audio power amplifier in battery powered sound players. Features of TDA2822M are very low quiescent current, low crossover distortion, DC source voltage down to 1.8 volts and minimal output power of approximately 450 mW/channel with 4 ohm loudspeaker at 5V DC supply input.


An ideal power amplifier can be basically described as a circuit which can supply audio power into external loads without having producing substantial signal distortion and without having consuming extreme quiescent current.

This circuit is powered by 5V DC source obtainable from the USB port of the Computer. When electrical power switch S1 is turned to ‘on’ position, 5V power supply is extended towards the circuit and power indicator red LED1 illuminates immediately. Resistor R1 is actually a current surge limiter and capacitors C1 and C4 work as buffers.

USB powered Stereo PC Speaker

How the circuit works..?

The operation of the circuit is very simple. Audio signals from the Computer audio port or headphone port are fed towards the amplifier circuit via R2 and C2 (for left channel), and R3 and C3 ( forright channel). Potensiometer VR1 used as the volume controller for left (L) channel, while potensiometer VR2 used to control the volume level of right (R) channel. Pin 7 of TDA2822M receives the left channel sound signals and pin 6 receives the right channel signals by way of VR1 and VR2, correspondingly. Amplified signals for driving the left and right loudspeakers can be obtained at pins 1 and pin 3 of IC1, correspondingly. Components R5 and C8, and R6 and C10 form the classic zobel network.

Construct the circuit on a medium size, general purpose PCB and enclose inside a appropriate case. It really is recommended to utilize a socket for IC TDA2822M. The external connections ought to be made working with suitably screened wires for improved result.

240V to 110V AC Inverter

Using this circuit diagram, can be designed a very simple AC voltage converter, which converts the 240V AC power to a voltage of 110V.

Circuit can be successfully used to power electrical devices that require a supply voltage of 110V. If such a device is a purely resistive load, as electric radiator, letcon the circuit described below will be useful. Basically, this is a regulator that ensures the effective output voltage of 110 V. It can be fixed, of course, at another value for the output voltage, if desired.

The most reliable and accurate method for measuring the load voltage is using a voltmeter with real effective value (which indicates the effective value for voltage harmonic). If the voltage across the load is not correct, we change the value of R2.

240V to 110V AC Inverter


Converter can be connected / disconnected from the remote by connecting a switch to 240 volts across REMOTE (jumper will be removed). In this case, command can be done with a voltage of 3-32 V, as shown in diagram. The optocoupler circuit presents the great advantage of isolation of control circuit from the network .

If using a TIC226triac type, the converter can supply currents up to 2 A. If the triac is mounted on a heatsink, the current can reach up to 4 A.

70-260VAC to180-350VDC voltage converter


Using circuit diagram below can be built a voltage converter, able to convert a 70-260V AC to a 180-350V DC voltage.

For this, a rectifier contained in a MC34161 is used, as a voltage doubler for low input voltages and as rectifier for high standard input voltage.

A variation of four times of the input voltage is reflected in a variation of not more than two times in output voltage.

MC34161 has included a reference voltage source which supplies a voltage of 2.54 V to pin 1. The signal applied to pin 2 is compared with internal voltage of 1.27 V.

R2-R3 voltage divider provides change state of internal comparator which grow output input voltage over 135 V (pin 5 passes in 1 state). The potential at pin 2 is less than 1.27 V. Triac is blocked and disconnects median connection between the two output capacitors, C2 and C3, such that doubling output voltage can not be produced

70-260VAC to180-350VDC voltage converter

  • When the input voltage is less than 135 V, pin 2 is maintained above the potential value of 1.27 V
  • Diodes D2 and D3 and capacitors C2 and C3 will function as voltage doubler.
  • Zener diode D5, together with R1 and C4, integrated circuit provides power to a stable source of 12 V. The time required passing standard rectifier circuit of the voltage doubler is determined by R4-C1.
  • Operating voltage of capacitors C2 and C3 must be> 250 V.

High efficiency, stereo Class-D audio amplifier


The SSM2380 is a fully integrated, high efficiency, stereo Class-D audio amplifier designed for mobile phone applications , mp3 players and other audio applications that require low output power . This class D audio amplifier  circuit requires few external components and operates from a single 2.5 V to 5.5 V supply.

SSM2380 audio amplifier  circuit is capable of delivering 2 W of continuous output power with <1% THD + N driving a 4 ohms load from a 5.0 V supply, or 1.4 watts of continuous output power on a 8 ohms load  .

The SSM2380 features a highly flexible I2C interface with many useful settings. Using the I2C control interface, the gain of SSM2380 can be selected from 1dB to 24 dB + Mute in 47 steps with no external components Other features accessed from the I2C interface are: independent L/R channel shutdown, variable ultra-low EMI emission control mode, Automatic Level Control (ALC) for high quality speaker protection, and Stereo-to-Mono mixing operation.

The SSM2380 features a high efficiency, low noise modulation scheme that requires no external LC output filters.
High efficiency, stereo Class-D audio amplifier


It operates with 93% efficiency at 1.4 W into 8 ohms or 85% efficiency at 2W into 4 ohms from a 5.0 V supply and has an SNR of >100 dB.
Main features of the SSM2380 audio amplifier are : highly configurable I2C interface , stereo amplifier configuration , stereo-to-mono mixer option via I2C control , 93% efficiency at 5.0 V, 1.4 W into 8 ohms speaker , >100 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) , single-supply operation from 2.5 V to 5.5 V , 20 nA ultralow shutdown current , short-circuit and thermal protection , pop-and-click suppression.

Mosfet Amplifier 20Watt Output Power

This audio amplifier showed in this circuit diagram , is a very simple and efficiency audio amplifier circuit based on the TDA1308 integrated class-AB stereo headphone . The device is fabricated in a 1 mm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process and has been primarily developed for portable digital audio applications.

You can use this circuit diagram with TDA1308 or TDA1308A , the difference between the TDA1308 and the TDA1308A is that the TDA1308A can be used at low supply voltages. The maximum output power that can be obtained with this circuit is around 80mwatts. This audio amplifier circuit requires a very low voltage power supply : from 3 to 7 volts for single supply or 1.5 to 3 volts for dual supply , for TDA1308 .

The TDA1308A supports a low voltage input down to 1.2 volts , but the typical power supply required for both circuits is 5 volts for single supply and 2.5 volts for dual supply .

As you can see the circuit requires very few external components and can be configured to work in stereo or mono configuration.

Mosfet Amplifier 20Watt Output Power

Simple 150 Watt Power Amplifier Circuit

This is the very simple circuit diagram of 150W power amplifier. The circuit is easy enough to built without PCB. The power output range is about 100-150W depends to the power supply and the Darlington’s you use for the amplifier. Heatsink is a must since the final transistor is going to hot when the amplifier is activated.

Simple 150 Watt Power Amplifier Circuit


The amplifier requires split power supply. The transformer is depending to your home electrical installation, it can be 110V or 220V primary. Use 35V-0-35V secondary (transformer output), you will get about 45V DC output from transformer 35V AC after rectified by the diodes. The Transformer current output should be at least 4A for better audio performance. Use 4A / 100V diodes.

Microphone Amplifier using MAT02

This microphone amplifier circuit electronic project is designed using MAT02 dual monolithic transistor and few passive electronic components .This microphone amplifier circuit allow use of microphones with different impedance and provides a voltage gain of 20 dB and 23.5 dB (amplification 10 and 15), selectable from a switch. Preamplifier has two stages with direct coupling and reaction, and the input stage operates at very low collector current to minimize the noise. 

Micrhophone Amplifier Circuit


Output impedance is approximately 70 ohms at a gain of 23.5 dB. Low power consumption (approx. 2.5 mA) and power from a 9V battery make it ideal for portable applications. Since the resistor R3 is responsible for input impedance and a few other important features of preamplifier, with R3 = 220 k, the input impedance is 30 k. Change the value of R3 to 6.8 k input impedance dropped to about 1 k.

Thursday, June 21, 2012

Network Voltage Indicator

Using this schematic can be made a network voltage indicator electronic circuit. If the input voltage is present across the network, the optocoupler transistor is open, T1 is blocked and controlled rectifier, Th1, is in a state of conduction. Since both terminals of the piezoelectric buzzer is at the same potential, buzzer is off. If voltage disappears, the transistor T1 enters the conduction and thus makes the terminal of buzzer to be put on the ground (maintains thyristor conduction state).

Network Voltage Indicator Circuit
Circuit Source: DIY Electronics Projects
In this situation, there is a sufficiently large potential difference across the buzzer and D5's to determine that these two elements to indicate AC power loss, both audible and visual. By pressing the reset button current is interrupted by Th1, so thyristor enter in blocking state and the other terminal of the buzzer is connected to ground.

Friday, June 15, 2012

Voltage Feedback Op-Amp

VOLTAGE FEEDBACK OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
Device Description:
Voltage feedback operational amplifiers usually manufactured for industrial use have ultra-low power requirements, with a typical quiescent current value of approximately 250 micro amperes. The typical current drawn in powered-down mode for such an amplifier is 0.5 micro amperes. They are suitable for operation at any bandwidth below 56 MHz. The manufacturing process is called a 'SiGe complimentary bipolar process'. It is an advanced method used at the industrial level.
Ultra-low power-op amps have rail-to-rail output along with negative rail input. They are specially designed to operate under an EMF ranging from 2.5 – 5.5 Volts. There are two options: the single or dual supply operational amplifier. The aforementioned voltage supply is for single mode op amps whereas for a dual mode operational amplifier the power supply ranges from -1.25 to -2.25 Volts and 1.25 to 2.75 Volts (in dual supply configuration). These operational amplifiers are leading the industry due to their high power/performance ratio. They consume a mere 250 micro amperes of current on each channel, under a unity gain of 56 MHz.
A voltage feedback operational amplifier is well-suited for portable battery applications in which low power consumption is desired along with good performance. It consumes little power, yet offers high frequency performance. Such operational amplifiers serve as the device with high frequency performance in many battery-powered applications by lowering current consumption. This is achievable on account of a power saving mode, in which its current consumption can be lowered to 1.5 micro amperes. A voltage feedback operational amplifier consists of an integrated gain setting resistor in its both single and dual supply variants. These gain setting resistors are bound to a printed circuit board with the smallest possible size across a wide range of attainable gain values - they can be replaced with a potentiometer for controllable resistance. The design of a voltage feedback operational amplifier impacts the range of attenuation values. These amplifiers are designed to work at industrial-standard temperatures ranging from -40 to 250 degrees centigrade.
Applications of Voltage Feedback Operational Amplifiers
A voltage feedback operational amplifier has many industrial applications, including the following:
•    Audio ADC input buffers
•    Portable systems
•    High density systems
•    Low power systems
•    Ultrasonic flow systems
•    ADC Drivers
•    Low power SAR
•    Low power signal conditioning systems.

What is an Autotransformer

WHAT IS AN AUTOTRANSFORMER? HOW IS IT IMPLEMENTED?
An autotransformer is a type of transformer in which a single inductor coil is used. It has a single continuous winding of coil, with a connection point between the primary and secondary sides. This connection point is called tap. The tap has its own characteristics: an adjustable joint that is used vary the number of turns and  influence the turn ratio, to either step up and step down the voltage across the device. This feature can be used to provide a variable voltage to a load connected to the transformer.

Construction:
The main difference in the construction of autotransformers for a step down or step up voltages lies in the connection between the voltage source and the connected load with the single inductor coil. Variable voltage is produced in this way.

Some key mathematical expressions for step down and step up transformers are given below:
•    For a step down transformer circuit, the voltage ratio is given by:
            V1/V2 = (N1+N2) / N2
•    And the current ratio is given as:
            I1/I2 = N2 / (N1+N2)
•    For a step up transformer circuit, the voltage ratio is given by:
            V1/V2 = N1 / (N1+N2)
•    And the current ratio is given as:
            I1/I2 = (N1+N2) / N1

Where    V1 = Voltage across the inductor coil of an autotransformer
        V2 = voltage across the load connected to the autotransformer
        I1 = Electric current passing through the inductor coil
        I2 = Electric current passing through the load
        N1 = Number of turns of coil on the primary side
        N2 = Number of turns of coil on the secondary side

Comparing an autotransformer with a conventional transformer:
 An autotransformer is a type of power transformer. It can transfer a larger apparent power than a two-inductor coil-wound transformer. When compared to standard transformers, autotransformers tend to be smaller in size and lighter in weight. However, a major disadvantage of an autotransformer is its lack of electrical isolation between primary and secondary windings due to the presence of a single winding inductor coil. This property of lacking electrical isolation does not make an autotransformer a useless device - application where electrical isolation is not required do exist.
A full range of transformers and autotransformers are supplied by element 14, through their business partner Panduit.

Cell Phone Detector circuit diagram

The circuit can detect both the incoming and outgoing calls, SMS and video transmission even if the mobile phone is kept in the silent mode. The moment the bug detects RF transmission signal from an activated mobile phone, it starts sounding a beep alarm and the LED blinks. The alarm continues until the signal transmission ceases.
An ordinary RF detector using tuned LC circuits is not suitable for detecting signals in the GHz frequency band used in mobile phones. The transmission frequency of mobile phones ranges from 0.9 to 3 GHz with a wavelength of 3.3 to 10 cm. So a circuit detecting gigahertz signals is required for a mobile bug.

Here the circuit uses a 0.22μF disk capacitor (C3) to capture the RF signals from the mobile phone. The lead length of the capacitor is fixed as 18 mm with a spacing of 8 mm between the leads to get the desired frequency. The disk capacitor along with the leads acts as a small gigahertz loop antenna to collect the RF signals from the mobile phone.

Saturday, June 09, 2012

DIN Valve Connectors for Solenoids

Solenoids are versatile components used for various industrial purposes. They're quite simple, consisting of a coil and a spring-loaded plunger within a suitable housing. This simple arrangement is used in a variety of industrial automation procedures, including complex machine building, pneumatic valves, hydraulic valves, robotics, pressure switches, transducers and solenoid valves. Real-world applications extend to on-vehicle cranes, lifting equipment and even garbage trucks.

 DIN Valve Connectors for Solenoids
Since they are used in so many kinds of industrial applications, solenoids have to face a range of operating conditions. Water, dust and dirt ingress are the most common operating conditions that threaten the operation of a solenoid, by preventing smooth movement of the rod.

Molex make external-threaded DIN Valve Connectors that have excellent sealing properties along with superior cable retention. This increases the performance and reliability of their solenoids. By simplifying the manufacturing processes, Molex reduces the overall applied costs for all types of solenoids used in electromagnetic, pneumatic and hydraulic devices.

Molex make external-threadedMolex has provided several features and benefits in their simple but innovative design -
• The external nut is ergonomically designed for greater and consistent torque providing uniform sealing between connector and cable. The cable retention force is now 115%, offering improved reliability.
• The customer's inventory is reduced, since PG9, PG11 and cables of outer diameter up to 9mm can be accommodated.
• Errors are eliminated, as an incorrectly-sized installer cannot be used. The front gasket is integrated and self-retaining within the housing, preventing it from being misplaced during assembly.
• Handling, wire routing and speed of assembly is increased by via the 30% increase in internal volume because of external nut design. Speed of assembly is further reduced since the connector is supplied disassembled.
• Plus / minus screwheads enable air tools to be used for volume production. In the field an operator can use either a flat or a Phillips-head screwdriver.

Friday, June 08, 2012

Automatic Emergency Lamp Circuit

This is an automatic emergency lamp with day light sensing, means it senses darkness/night and turns ON automatically. Similarly it senses day light and turns OFF automatically. A simple emergency lamp which does not require any special equipment; even a multimeter to assemble and use. Any individual who can do a good quality soldering must be able to build this circuit successfully.

This can be easily accommodated in the defunct two 6 watt tube National Emergency Lamp or any PL tube type emergency lamp. The difference will be in the working; it will work non stop for more than 8 hours. Deep discharge is taken care by the LED characteristic and over charge protection is taken care by the fixed voltage regulator.This uses a simple 3Pin fixed regulator which has a built in current limiting circuit.

Simple Emergency Light Circuit Diagram: 

Automatic Emergency Lamp Circuit
Automatic Emergency Lamp Circuit
The only required adjustment is the preset which has to be set to ensure the LEDs just light up (it should be left at that position). The 5mm LDR is just mounted on top of the emergency light as shown in the photograph. LDR is used to avoid it lighting up during day time or when the room lights are ON. 2 LEDs are used in series; the dropping resistance is avoided and 2 LEDs light up with current that is required for a single LED,  by which energy is saved to a great extent.

This particular circuit has been kept so simple for people who has limited access to components or in other words this is an emergency light that you can build with minimum components. In addition to circuit diagram, He has shared photographs of the prototype he made in National emergency light and a PCB design.

Police Lights Circuit with 555 and 4017 IC

This circuit uses a 555 timer which is setup to both runn in an Astable operating mode. This generates a continuous output via Pin 3 in the form of a square wave. When the timer's output changes to a high state this triggers the a cycle on the 4017 4017 decade counter telling it to output the next sequential output high. The outputs of the 4017 are connected to the LEDs turning them on and off.

Police Lights Schematic
Police Lights Circuit Schematic

Friday, June 01, 2012

Circuit 150W amplifier with active crossover

stereo amplfiier with crossover
Series 150W Amplifier With Active Crossover Series 150W Amplifier with Active Crossover is very interesting. Actually, this circuit uses 4-channel power amplifier chip. Well, as an Active Crossover here we use also a chip that can separate the tone of the bass, midrange and treble, the output from the Active Crossover can be directly amplified by power amplifier.

Power Chip 4-channel amplifier that we use is SANYO LA47536 who have power outputs up to 150W, while for Active Crossover (Active Crossover) we use the LF353 from National Semiconductor.

stereo active crossover amplifier

Digital Bike Tachometer Circuit

This digital DIY tachometer for bikes uses two reed switches to get the speed information of the bicycle. The reed switches are installed near the rim of the wheel where permanent magnets pass by. The permanent magnets are attached to the wheelspokes and activate the reed switches everytime they pass by it. The speed is digitally displayed.

Electronic bicycle DIY tachometer circuit diagram
Digital Bike Tachometer Circuit

The tachometer circuit works according to this principle; the pulses created by the reed contacts are counted within a certain time interval. The resulting count is then displayed and represents the speed of the bike. Two 4026 ICs are used to count the pulses, decode the counter and control two 7-segment LED display. RS flip-flops U3 and U4 function as anti-bounce.

The pulses arrive at the counter’s input through gate U7. The measuring period is determined by monostable multivibrator U5/U6 and can be adjusted through potentiometer P1 so that the tacho can be calibrated. The circuit U1/U2 resets the counters.

Since batteries are used to power the circuit, it is not practical to support the continous display of speed information. This circuit is not continously active. The circuit is activated only after a button is pressed. At least three permanent magnets must be installed on the wheel. The circuit can be calibrated with the help of another precalibrated tachometer.