Friday, May 27, 2011

Running LED with 4017

Running LED with 4017 complete with PCB layout. The series of 8 LED current is the basis for creating an 8-point LED. Slightly different from the running LED with IC 4017 (decade counter), 8 running this led is lit in sequence, but that has been previously flame does not die when the led is lit afterwards. 8 led to death after led to the fire-8. Meanwhile in the running LED (decade counter), the system LED lights like "point", there is only one LED that flashes between the tenth led.

Make a series letters from the LED

Make a series letters from the LED , Things to consider before making the sign of the LED array,
1) Use LED nodes.
2) Paint the top of the PCB with a dark color (black).
3) Note the LED specifications. In this experiment use a 5mm diameter LED nodes
that emit red, specification voltage of 3 volts.

Subwoofer power amplifier IC OPA541BM

Subwoofer power amplifier circuit based on IC OPA541BM very suitable for use in subwoofer speakers, these amplifiers possess excellence in sound issued because the sound is very clear and issued in accordance with subwoofer speakers in a low tone.
Subwoofer power amplifier IC OPA541BM
Subwoofer power amplifier IC OPA541BM Circuit
Don't forget to see subwoofer booster circuit

Thursday, May 26, 2011

120W amplifier with LM12

This is power amplifier with basic amplifiy on IC LM12.

LM12 High Power AMplifier

BTL Stereo Amplifier TDA7052 / 3

This is BTL stereo power amplifier with basic amplifier on IC TDA7052 / TDA7053

BTL Stereo Amplifier TDA7052 / 3

Sunday, May 22, 2011

Condenser Pre Amplifier LM 1458

This is a simple preamplifier circuit for electret condenser microphone.
using a LM1458 dual op amp IC. The circuit takes the audio signal rom the condenser microphone and amplifier it, so you can use the microphone as the input to some device which wouldn’t normally accept microphone level signals .

Condenser Pre Amplifier


Schematic Circuit of Microphone Electret

Condenser Pre Amplifier



The circuit requires a 6-9 volt supply. Output of the microphone amplifier can be made variable by connecting a 10kΩ potentiometer . Circuit’s gain can be increased by men perbesar the value of 47K, depending on the input sensitivity of the main amplifier system. The microphone should be housed in a small round enclosure.



List componet of condenser pre-amp mic circuit

Q1,Q2    : LM1458 Op-Amp

R1,R2,R3 : 4.7k ohm resistor

R4, R5   : 10k ohm resistor

R6,R7    : 47k ohm resistor

C1,      : 0.22uF ceramic capacitor

C2       : 1uF ceramic capacitor



Absolute maximum ratings of LM 1458 IC

Supply Voltage               :  ±18V

Power Dissipation            : 400 mW

Differential Input Voltage   : ±30V

Input Voltage                : ±15V

Output Short-Circuit Duration: Continuous

Operating Temperature Range  : 0°C to +70°C

Storage Temperature Range    : −65°C to +150°C

Lead Temperature             :(Soldering, 10 sec.) 260°C

Power Supply Variable 1.3V - 12.2V 1A Circuit

Power supply circuit to generate output below were variations between 1.3V DC to 12.2V DC with 1A current.
In addition, the power supply circuit is also equipped with over-current protection or shield against belebih flow. Power supply circuit is very simple, but the quality is quite good, made her basiskan regulator IC LM723 is a pretty legendary.




1.3V DC to 12.2V DC Regulator Power Supply


Description:

R2 to set the output voltage. The maximum current is determined by R3, over-current protection circuit inside the LM723 to detect the voltage on R3, if it reaches 0.65 V, the voltage output will be off her. So the current through R3 can not exceed 0.65 / R3 although output short-circuit in his.



C3 and C4 are ceramic capacitors, as much as possible directly soldered to the PCB, this is because the LM723 is prone to oscillation that is not cool.



LM723 works with 9.5V input voltage to 40 V DC and the LM723 can generate its own current of 150mA when the output voltage is not more than 6-7V under input voltage.



Specifications:

Output (value estimated):



Vmin = (R4 + R5) / (R5 * 1.3)

Vmax = (7.15 / R5) * (R4 + R5)



Imax = 0.65/R3



Max. Power on R3: 0.42/R3



Min. DC Input Voltage (pin 12 to pin 7): Vmax + 5



Component List:

B1 40V/2.5A

C1 2200uF (3300uF even better)

C2 4.7uF

C3 100nF

C4 1NF

C5 330nF

C6 100uF

Green LED D1

D2 1N4003

F1 0.2A F

F2 2A M

IC1 LM723 (in a DIL14 plastic package)

R1 1k

R2 Pot. 5k

R3 0.56R/2W



R4 3.3k

R5 4.7k

S1 250V/1A

T1 2N3055 on a heatsink 5K / W

TR1 220V/17V/1.5

Toggle switch with Infra Red IR

Toggle switch in this article is a series of toggle switches that are controlled by infrared light. The series toggle switch is made from a combination of data flip-flop CD4013 2 units.
Receiver circuit of the infrared light signals arranged with infrared receiver as found on television remote receiver. Infrared signal from remote is used as clock signals and data to the data flip-flop first. then the second flip-flop data set as a toggle flip-flop toggle the output signal is used to drive the relay. for more details can be seen in thethe following image .



Toggle switch with Infra Red IR


Series Toggle Switch With Infra Red (IR) that is required to supply voltage range of 12VDC and the output of Toggle Switch With Infra Red (IR) is dapt used to turn on the lights or other electronic devices with DC or AC voltage source. Series Toggle Switch With Infra Red (IR) was isolated from the load that is placed for use as the final relay.

Mini Amplifier with 3 Transistor

Mini 3 transistor amplifier is a simple amplifier with 50mW power drawn by 3 transitor.
The series of three mini-amplifier transistors can be used for loud speaker 8 ohm load. Source voltage required to activate the mini-amplifier can be drawn from the batteries 9V.Rangkaian 3 transistor amplifier is often used in simple portabe audio devices such as radios or small tape recorder. Mini-transistor amplifier circuit 3 is quite simple as shown in the figure below.





Mini Amplifier with 3 Transistor


Mini-transistor amplifier circuit 3 includes type of amplifier OTL (Output Transformer Less). Mini-transistor amplifier circuit 3 is used for output coupling capacitors. Amplifier circuit is simple and suitable when used for audio amplifier experiment.

5 Volt Switching Regulator Power Supply

The switching regulator power supply used LM2575-5.0 on this schematic. You can make the stable voltage by using the 3 terminal regulator like LM317. However, because the output electric current and the inputted electric current are the same approximately, the difference between the input electric power (The input voltage x The input electric current) and the output power (The output voltage x The output current) is consumed as the heat with the regulator. Because it is, the efficiency isn�t good.
5 Volt Switching Regulator Power Supply

Data sheet for LM2575
SIMPLE SWITCHER 1A Step-Down Voltage Regulator
http://www.national.com/pf/LM/LM2575.htm

150 watts power amplifier circuit

Amplifier circuit is 150 watts power amplifier circuit is quite simple.
This circuit requires only 5 pieces of transistors as the main component of reinforcement. There is no equalizer option on this amplifier circuit because it can be said of this series is very simple, so do not you compare it with that sold in the market which are usually equipped with various sound system and equalizer settings. 


But to add to your collection circuit, this circuit is fairly easy and inexpensive to make and maybe one day you may need as a weak signal booster from your electronic circuit. Or you can also make this amplifier as an amplifier of high frequency signal from the output circuit animal repellent and I guarantee the results are very satisfactory.

150 watts power amplifier circuit


Power supply required is two-polarity power supply is + - 45 volts. Maximum power that can be obtained by this amplifier circuit is around 150 watts. As the volume control you can add potensio or variable resistor 10 Kohm in series at the input. Use dispasi loudspeaker with 150 watts power. Use a heatsink on the transistor-transistor driver loudspeaker or amplifier late as Q1 and Q2.

Altium Designer 10.0 – Free Download

A unified electronic product development solution Altium Designer is the world’s first and only unified electronic product development system that allows engineers to take a design from concept to completion within a single application.

Measure your stress level – Tension meter

If you, like so many other people in this day and age, arrive home from work stressed out and with the problems of the day still lingering,this simple little instrument will go a long way to relieving nervous tension.

Smart Tracker - track anything from your child to shoes

The EPE Minder consists of two type- approved transmitter units and a receiver. If either transmitter becomes separated from the receiver, a buzzer in the latter part will sound.

Power Supply Variable 1.3V - 12.2V 1A Circuit

Power supply circuit to generate output below were variations between 1.3V DC to 12.2V DC with 1A current. In addition, the power supply circuit is also equipped with over-current protection or shield against belebih flow. Power supply circuit is very simple, but the quality is quite good, made her basiskan regulator IC LM723 is a pretty legendary.




1.3V DC to 12.2V DC Regulator Power Supply


Description:

R2 to set the output voltage. The maximum current is determined by R3, over-current protection circuit inside the LM723 to detect the voltage on R3, if it reaches 0.65 V, the voltage output will be off her. So the current through R3 can not exceed 0.65 / R3 although output short-circuit in his.



C3 and C4 are ceramic capacitors, as much as possible directly soldered to the PCB, this is because the LM723 is prone to oscillation that is not cool.



LM723 works with 9.5V input voltage to 40 V DC and the LM723 can generate its own current of 150mA when the output voltage is not more than 6-7V under input voltage.



Specifications:

Output (value estimated):



Vmin = (R4 + R5) / (R5 * 1.3)

Vmax = (7.15 / R5) * (R4 + R5)



Imax = 0.65/R3



Max. Power on R3: 0.42/R3



Min. DC Input Voltage (pin 12 to pin 7): Vmax + 5



Component List:

B1 40V/2.5A

C1 2200uF (3300uF even better)

C2 4.7uF

C3 100nF

C4 1NF

C5 330nF

C6 100uF

Green LED D1

D2 1N4003

F1 0.2A F

F2 2A M

IC1 LM723 (in a DIL14 plastic package)

R1 1k

R2 Pot. 5k

R3 0.56R/2W



R4 3.3k

R5 4.7k

S1 250V/1A

T1 2N3055 on a heatsink 5K / W

TR1 220V/17V/1.5

Saturday, May 21, 2011

LM4651 and LM4652 170W power amplifier

170 Watt power amplifier is a power amplifier that is built by IC LM4651 and LM4652.

170W power amplifier LM4651 and LM4652

170 Watt power amplifier is a power amplifier that is built by IC LM4651 and LM4652.


Part of this power amplifier driver using the LM4651 IC designed specifically for the purpose of the class AB amplifier driver with short circuit protection feature, containing under voltage, thermal shutdown protection and standby functions. Section 170 Watt power amplifier using LM4651 IC with a MOSFET power amplifier is equipped with temperature sensors that will be used by IC LM4651 as controlnya thermal signal. IC IC LM4651 and LM4652 are designed specifically to each other in pairs to create a class AB power amplifier with protection features are detailed. Detailed series of 170 Watt power amplifier can be seen in thethe following figure .

170W power amplifier LM4651 and LM4652

Power amplifier circuit requires supply voltages +22 V DC symmetrical 0-22V. Power Amplifier with IC LM4651 and LM4652 are often used in portable HiFi systems such as powered speakers, power subwoofer and car audio power Booter. D1, D2, D3 and D4 in series 170 watt power amplifier with LM4651 and LM4652 is a 22V zener diode.

Tube Power Amplifier 35W Push Pull

Tube Power Amplifier 35W Push Pull is made using a tube and eventually compiled configuration push-pull amplifier. Tube Power Amplifier 35W Push Pull tube til it using EL-34 as the amplifier end.

Power Supply for tube amplifier

Power supply for EL-34 tube is specially designed for the purposes of power supply at the push-pull amplifier with EL-34 tube as in article 35 Watt Tube Power Amplifier Push Pull before.

Power supply for EL-34 tube amplifier is made with transformers CT and 2 pieces diode as rectifier. Mechanical filters are applied in the power supply uses 3 levels. Power supply for tube power amplifier can deliver output voltages +220 VDC. Circuit details can be seen in the following figure.

Power Supply for tube amplifier

The above power supply circuit has a high output voltage so that need to be considered in the assembling  because electricit shock(stun). Power Supply For Tube Power Amplifier With Diode EL-34 was created specifically for the power amplifier tube push pull EL-34.

Friday, May 20, 2011

Class A headphone amplifier

Class A headphone amplifier
Class A headphone amplifier

HiFi Headphone amplifier

HiFi Headphone amplifier circuit schematic this is HIFi For you mobile phone headset.
HiFi Headphone amplifier
HiFi Headphone amplifier

TDA1308T Headphone amplifier circuit

TDA1308T Headphone amplifier circuit. Headphone amplifier circuit with IC is very useful and enhancing your performance headphone sound like a amplifier.
TDA1308T Headphone amplifier circuit
TDA1308T Headphone amplifier circuit

Headphone amplifier circuit

Headphone amplifier circuit with op amp ic OPA134, 2134, NE5532, 5534.
Headphone amplifier circuit
Headphone amplifier circuit with op amp

Hi-Fi 25W Power Amplifier (Class-A)

Hi-Fi 25W Power Amplifier (Class-A) Schematics Circuit
Hi-Fi 25W Power Amplifier (Class-A)
Click to view larger

Thursday, May 19, 2011

1.3V DC to 12.2V DC Regulator Power Supply

Power supply circuit to generate output below were variations between 1.3V DC to 12.2V DC with 1A current.

Flash Lights with HT2014L

Flash Lights with HT2014L

Toggle Switch with IR

Toggle switch in this article is a series of toggle switches that are controlled by infrared light. The series toggle switch is made from a combination of data flip-flop CD4013 2 units. Receiver circuit of the infrared light signals arranged with infrared receiver as found on television remote receiver. Infrared signal from remote is used as clock signals and data to the data flip-flop first. then the second flip-flop data set as a toggle flip-flop toggle the output signal is used to drive the relay. for more details can be seen in thethe following image .

8 Relay Control Circuit

8 Relay Control Circuit
R1-8=4.7 Kohms T1-8= BD139 (R1-8=15 Kohms if T1-8=BD679)
RL1-8=6V-24V dc Relay D1-8=1N4148

Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Mosfet Amplifier with power output 400W

See figure below its power amplifier using transistor mosfet as amplifier.
Mosfet Amplifier with power output 400W
Mosfet Amplifier with power output 400W

Monday, May 16, 2011

CDI ignition circuit diagram

The CDI ignition circuit produces a spark from an ignition coil by discharging a capacitor across the primary of the coil. A 2uF capacitor is charged to about 340 volts and the discharge is controlled by an SCR.

CDI ignition circuit diagram

A Schmitt trigger oscillator (74C14) and MOSFET (IRF510) are used to drive the low voltage side of a small (120/12 volt) power transformer and a voltage doubler arrangement is used on the high voltage side to increase the capacitor voltage to about 340 volts.

A similar Schmitt trigger oscillator is used to trigger the SCR about 4 times per second. The power supply is gated off during the discharge time so that the SCR will stop conducting and return to it's blocking state. The diode connected from the 3904 to pin 9 of the 74C14 causes the power supply oscillator to stop during discharge time. The circuit draws only about 200 milliamps from a 12 volt source and delivers almost twice the normal energy of a conventional ignition circuit.

High voltage from the coil is about 10KV using a 3/8 inch spark gap at normal air temperature and pressure. Spark rate can be increased to possibly 10 Hertz without losing much spark intensity, but is limited by the low frequency power transformer and duty cycle of the oscillator. For faster spark rates, a higher frequency and lower impedance supply would be required. Note that the ignition coil is not grounded and presents a shock hazard on all of it's terminals. Use CAUTION when operating the circuit.

An alternate method of connecting the coil is to ground the (-) terminal and relocate the capacitor between the cathode of the rectifier diode and the positive coil terminal. The SCR is then placed between ground and the +340 volt side of the capacitor. This reduces the shock hazard and is the usual configuration in automotive applications.

10Mhz to 1 MHz Frequency Converter

10Mhz to 1 MHz Frequency Converter Circuit

Control Relay Circuit with 9 Second

See figure below its Control Relay Circuit Schematics.

6 to 12 Volt Converter

Below its a converter circuit voltage from 6 Volt to 12 Volt DC.

230 - 400 Watt Power Amplifier MOSFET

Amplifier circuit below is a series of amplifiers with the amplifier transistor and mosfet. This amplifier output power ranging from 230W up to 400W.

230 - 400 Watt Power Amplifier MOSFET
230 - 400 Watt Power Amplifier


800W Power Amplifier MOSFET

This Figure is a schematic power amplifier with power 800 Watt and driver and booster using MOSFET.
800W Power Amplifier MOSFET
Audio Power Amplifier with power output 800W

1.3 - 12.2 VDC Variable Power Supply

Power supply circuit to generate output below were variations between 1.3V DC to 12.2V DC with 1A current.
1.3 - 12.2 VDC Variable Power Supply
In addition, the power supply circuit is also equipped with over-current protection or shield against belebih flow. Power supply circuit is very simple, but the quality is quite good, made ​​her basiccally regulator IC LM723 is a fairly legendary.

System circuit (not) Minimum (Evaluation Board) AT89C2051 and AT89C4051

Maybe we are more familiar with the term Minimum System AT89C2051 circuit, but this time I present a circuit which is not only a series of Minimum System AT89C2051 but more than that.
System circuit (not) Minimum (Evaluation Board) AT89C2051 and AT89C4051

The circuit is more deserves to be called Evaluation Board AT89C2051 and AT89C4051. Some of the advantages of circuit Minimum System AT89C2051 / AT89C2051 and AT89C4051 Evaluation Board which I was present this time, hardware-hardware support below:


RS-232 interface, DB-9
Header for LCD display
I2C, PCF8574 I / O extender
AT24C04, I2C EEPROM

200W power amplifier complete power supply

This 200W power amplifier circuit using IC STK 4050.
STK 4050 is a power amplifier module is very powerful, because the IC is already a module then only needed a little extra components to build a reliable 200W Power Amplifier. Here is a picture series of Power Amplifier ICs 200W use STK 4050 complete with its power supply:
200W power amplifier complete power supply

Sunday, May 15, 2011

Simple Inverter with Two Transistors

The series below is a simple inverter circuit that will change the voltage of 12v dc to 220v ac, with use drive transistor 32 as its tip.

Improving Performance Bass Guitar Amplifier

Improving Performance Bass Guitar Amplifier

1. Replace strings: strings are the source of the sound of a bass. If bad strings, of course difficult to get a good sound. How good / expensive any bass, if strings are mendem ("dead") would sound so bad

2. Know your bass character of us, whether inclined treble, middle, or ngebass (low). From here our reference point. If soundnya not in accordance with our desires, try to correction with tone control / equalizer.

3. There are so many factors affecting the bass sounds, ranging from strings, pickups, body wood, neck & fingerboard.
Try to identify the character masing2, eg the influence of wood types, pickup types, etc..
From there we can determine which one should be modified.

Chain audio a bass sound as follows
Strings-> pickup-> Preamp / Tone Control-> Connection Cable-> Amplifier
Well, just select which one would aja in mod.

Actually the material (wood) body / neck / fingerboard also influence:

String-> Body/Neck/Fingerboard-> Pickup-> Preamp / Tone Control-> Connection Cable-> Amplifier (+ Speaker)

Only if you replace the body just wrote instead of bass.
So, if you can choose a distinguished bass wood is good, Ntar if you want to be upgraded more easily.
If wood is not good (Agathis), although the results are less than the maximum upgrade.

Tips for Choosing a quality Power Amplifier

Here are some tips you need to note:

TDA7000 Single Chip FM Radio

This fm radio series fm radio receiver circuit that uses a single ic TDA.

Automatic Battery Charger Circuit

Basically the circuit designed above have a very simple way of working, where the circuit is designed so that does not happen short circuit or short circuit between the voltage supply with batteries that will be in-charge.

Transistor As a timer circuit

Basically on all timer or timer circuit utilizing most of the basic characteristics of the capacitor.

Trick jumper switches on the mobile phone antenna

Trick jumper switches on the mobile phone antenna this will affect the capability dual-band mobile phone into one band only, ie 900 MHz.

Reducing Treble tone circuit

Treble reducer circuit above is an example of a simple circuit and is suitable to be used as experimental material and analysis of the workings of the circuit. 



As I mentioned earlier the bass reducer series, this series actually has the same working principles with a series of bass reducer. Where these circuits utilize capacitors nature of the charge and discharge. The difference of the damping function obtained from the difference of the capacitor. If the series bass reducer series capacitors are mounted on the op-amp input lines, while in this treble reducer series capacitors are mounted parallel with the strengthening of the op-amp prisoners. Installation of this circuit has a parallel in the work analysis in contrast with the installation of the series on a series of bass reducer. The difference is that the installation of the series, so we URLs that are easy to understand how a wire working capacitors for high frequency signal, so with high frekuesni so automatic signal to be passed to the output terminal by a capacitor. But if we put a parallel between the output capacitor with the terminals, then automatically because the capacitor is considered as a wire so the voltage on the capacitor is near 0 volts, so the output voltage will also follow the voltage on the capacitor because they connect parallel. As with the low frequency signal, the capacitor is considered open and makes voltage wire that fell to him is to approach the input voltage. To understand how the capacitor can be regarded as a wire or an open switch I mentioned in my post about the working principles of capacitors and a series of bass reducer.

Indeed, when examined in detail, not only the capacitors that play a role here but the component resistors and op-amp also affect. But I can confirm that the main function is performed by a capacitor reduction. Series resistors are intended to be installed that will flow into the capacitor can be adjusted so that it influences the charge and discharge the capacitor will make the appropriate damping.

Take a look at the picture above the treble reducer circuit and also the image output signal. There are two function generator as input and has a signal with different frequencies. The first signal of amplitude 1 volt and low frequencies, the two signals with an amplitude of 1 volt and with high frequency. At the time of our input select switch position to the relationship with the input low frequency signal, the signal output will be nearly equal to the input signal such as no change. Whereas if we switch position to link high-frequency input signal then the output signal amplitude will be damped near 0 volts.

Example treble reducer circuit is very simple and can you develop more in accordance with the desires and your needs. At least with understanding the working principle of this circuit we can apply a time when we are required to perform the function of damping trebele.

Pulse generator circuit with Logic Gate

Pulse generator circuit above is a pulse generator that uses logic gates. There are so many types and variations that can generate a series of pulses.
The simplest is the use of transistors or often called a flip-flop. There also are using integrated circuit such as IC 555. There's more to exploit the resonance of the capacitor and inductor relationship as oscillators. To be sure whatever form and whatever the circuit components used must be able to generate electric waves which have a peak voltage (logic 1) and valleys (logic 0) is continuous.



Any variation of pulse generator circuit design has advantages and disadvantages of each, just how your decision for the appropriate circuit. For example to create a clock signal for a simple utility that you can only take advantage of the transistor but if you need a more accurate clock signal and form a perfect balance you can use IC Astable or logic gates. Or perhaps you need a signal with very high frequency (up to MHz) you can use a combination of inductor, resistor and capacitor.

Frequency value of the pulse generator circuit gate above is determined by the value kapaitor C2, R2, R3 and VR2. The greater the value of these components will lower the frequency and vice versa. Actually nothing is difficult to make a series of pulse generators, almost all time-based series is utilizing the nature of the charge and discharge capacitor. Therefore, like any form of variations in pulse generator circuit, always have a larger capacitor value will make the frequency produced smaller or longer periods of time, sedangkaan smaller capacitor values ​​will result in greater output frequency.

Basic Principles of the LC resonance circuit

If so far you are still confused how the actual origin of the resonance between the capacitor and the inductor is in progress, then the simple circuit above will answer your confusion.


Basic Principles of the LC resonance circuit

By understanding a simple electrical circuit above hopefully we will be able to understand the working principle of a series of more complicated and complex that uses the relationship as a series inductor and capacitors transmitter and receiver.

Note the picture above, when the switch SW1 is pressed and released back then obtained by the same signal as in the picture above signal. Initially when SW1 is connected to the voltage supply, the capacitor will make filling fast. Then when SW1 is released charge on the capacitor will be used by the inductor as the supply voltage. In accordance with the general nature of the inductor that the DC signal will be considered ordinary wire inductor such that current flowing quickly through the inductor and the charge on the capacitor decreases rapidly exhausted. Uniquely current that was flowing through the inductor and capacitor will fill the empty capacitor back through the other terminal (negative cycle). Charging kapasior place quickly, then inductor will burden the back so that emptying of cargo going back. That so happens repeatedly (resonance occurs between L and C) until the electrical charge had been used up by these two components in the form of power losses. Equations between regular wire inductor is the inductor with wire work as usual at the time of current flowing to him. Inductors But unlike ordinary wire when current flows to him and vice versa. So it will not happen short circuit if the inductor to get the supply voltage alternating current (AC). But in ordinary wire short circuit will still occur even if the voltage of alternating current.

From the above analysis we can conclude that the LC resonance occurs because one component part affected by the characteristics of other components. For frequencies generated depend on the value of L and C itself. The greater the value of both the frequency will be smaller and smaller the value of both the frequency value will be even greater.

IR (Infra Red) Sensor with 7-Segment Display

Infrared light has a difference with ordinary light in general. We can see clearly when a light or light on an object.
As with the infrared light we can not see the manifestation of these rays. Frankly I can not answer when asked why the infrared rays are not visible in the eyes of us. So at night do not hope you can make light by using infrared light. One thing that is often heard from many people that infrared light can utilized for the functions of a camera that can see in dark conditions is often called an infrared camera.

Actually I have explained the working principles of electronic circuit section in this blog is about the basic working principle of a series of infrared sensors are simple. To design this sensor circuit you should not find trouble if you ever make another series of sensors. It's just that the sensor circuit consists of the transmitter and receiver, to learn the basic principles of this series of infrared you can see in the Basic Principles Series Infrared Transmitter and Receiver. In the circuit this time I try to utilize the output of this sensor circuit as a trigger circuit counter or counters.
IR (Infra Red) Sensor with 7-Segment Display

Picture series of infrared sensors | infrared sensor circuit scheme


Component List:

1. Resistors: R1 (33K), R2 (1K), VR1 (Potensio 100K)
2. Capacitors: C1 (100nF)
3. Transistors: Q2 (BC547 should)
4. Photo transistor: Q1
5. IC: 40 106 (Schimitt trigger), 4026 (Decade counter)
6. 7-Segment

WORKING PRINCIPLE:

In the transmitter circuit arrangement so that our task is only an infrared LED lights up and no shortage or excess of power, therefore, use 680 ohm resistors. On The set of photo transistor receiver serves as a useful tool sensor sensed a change in the intensity of infrared light. When infrared light is not on the photo transistor, the photo transistor is like a switch is open so that the transistor is in cutoff position (open). Because the collector and emitter open it in accordance with the laws of the voltage divider, the collector emitter voltage equal to supply voltage (logic high). The output of these collectors would make a series of counter counting irregularly if we did not dampen the bounce output to the input couinter. To reduce the bounce and clarify the logic signal to be our input to counter circuit, we use Schmitt trigger ignition. Schmitt trigger ignition is very useful for those of you who relate to digital circuits, eg, using the damping bounce of mechanical switches on the input digital circuit.

The series of counters that I use here is to use IC 4026 (Decade Counter), one of the family ic CMOS. IC counter counts up if this will get the clock input changes from logic low to high. This IC can directly connect it to the seven segment because the output is designed for seven segment mmang. So you do not need to use as a modifier decoder IC binary value into a score of 7-segment.
To menmgatur you can rotate the sensor sensitivity potensio VR1 at a critical point, or if necessary you can replace R2 with a more appropriate value.

Traffic Lights Circuit

The circuit of traffic lights in my opinion is a series of easy-hard-easy to make. 



Traffic Lights Circuit

Where we are required to be able to condition the flame of three lamps by following the existing traffic regulations. If we use computer programming as a regulator of the third condition of the lights probably we will not spend too much time to make it. As an example with microcontroller programming or programming-based computer applications such as Visual Basic, Delphi and many others. But if you use a common electronic circuit components used may be somewhat time consuming to get the results you are fully in accordance with the conditions of traffic lights that use the streets.

Well ... if you're looking for examples of a series of simple traffic light above the range can I recommend to you. The working principle of a series of traffic light above is very easy to understand. The series of above use the output from IC up / down counter 74 190 as the producer output tercacah and then conditioned using logic gates so that the logic in accordance with the logic of the actual traffic light. Actually you can also use the IC counter ups as pencacahnya. Red lights are represented by the LED D1, D2 and yellow by green led by led D3.

LIST OF COMPONENTS:
Resistors: R1 (1 Kohm), R2, R3 and R4 (220 ohms) and VR1 (Potensio 10 K / 15 K)
Capacitors: C1 (100 UF)
Led: D1 (red), D2 (yellow) and D3 (green).
Integrated Circuit: IC1 (NE 555), IC2 (74LS190) and IC3 (74LS02)

HOW TO WORK AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUIT LIGHT TRAFFIC:
To generate the signal used peggerak counter circuit astable circuit IC555.
R1, C1 and VR1 is a combination astable as a determinant of the speed of the clock signal to be inserted to the input counter and in the end will determine the length of time the flame of their lamps. The greater the value of the three clock cycles will stay longer and vice versa.
To obtain a combination of LEDs required only 2 bits output from the counter circuit.
Bit-3 from the output to the counter only be used as reset the enumeration.
The lamp was first lit the light yellow color, due to connect with the output Q1 of counter IC. Then followed by a red lamp that is connected to the output Q2. Then both (yellow and red) light simultaneously. The last green light will turn on its own.
The series of bit counter counts up with the sequence:
- 0 1 (light yellow light)
- 1 0 (red light)
- 1 1 (light yellow and red lights)
- 0 0 (light turned green, according to the nature of the gate NOR)
Examples of traffic light sequence apply only to one lane for traffic light circuit that uses more than one line then you can use the same circuit device and use a combination of gates as a liaison between the conditions of each lane. This means you should make a longer red light is illuminated on each other point for point which it operates. These conditions can be achieved by utilizing a combination of logic gates in a chain.

Police Sirine Circuit with IC 555

The series of police sirens with 555 ic this is a series of sirens that utilizes two IC 555 as a pulse generator and producing shrill voice. 

Police Sirine Circuit with IC 555
Both ic 555 respectively build the astable multivibrator circuit and generate output signals with different frequencies. It is intended to be used as one of the high frequency generator or a screeching sound and the other as a regulator of the swing from last shrill voice. If we observe the working principle of this circuit is very similar to a series of modulation fm. Where the shrill sound signal likened to a high frequency signal from the oscillator circuit and control signal swing is the wail of the information signal or input signals that will transmit. This is consistent with the shape of the output signal associated with the loudspeaker, which has an output signal frequency changes in the form of regular meetings wave tenuous.


Actually a series of sirens could be simpler than if you use a 556 IC which is a dual multivibrator or equal to two pieces of IC 555. IC 556 has two multivibrator circuit menfaatkan so you can meet the workflow of this siren sound-producing circuit. Or you can also make it by using a combination of multiple transistors. And it could be you do remember the oscillator circuit can be easily made with transistors.

Appropriate image above then:
R1, R2, and C1 is a determinant of the frequency of the signal generated by IC1
R3, R4 and C3 is a determinant of the signal frequency whine
Signals generated by IC1 IC2 pin 5 connected to the control signals intended for the resulting shrieks
Screeching sound signal will swing to follow the control of the output signal IC1
You can do experiments in order to gain more understanding of police sirens this circuit by changing the value of some critical components such as the frequency of R1, R2, R3, R4, C1 and C3.

Loudspeaker Driver Circuit

The series of loudspeaker drivers are electronic circuits that function to bridge between high-output circuit with a loudspeaker berimpedasi berimpedansi low. 


Loudspeaker Driver Circuit

Why this driver is needed so that the output voltage to be inserted into the loudspeaker is not impaired. Declining value of this voltage is very possible given the lack of rules regarding the distribution of voltage and resistance instead of parallel. Where every prisoner that is placed parallel with other prisoners or the inmates totally substitute for detainee custody is smaller than with individual prisoners themselves. For example, 10 ohm resistance 10 ohms paralleled with the prisoners would get custody instead of 5 ohms. Resistivity 10 ohm to 100,000 ohm paralleled the total resistance is 9.9990 ohms. So it can be concluded that the total voltage will always be smaller than the origin of each detainee. Then, with a decrease in resistance (only using a combination of resistors) or the impedance of the output terminals before, then in accordance with the laws of the voltage divider in series can be ascertained that the prisoners connect in series with output terminal will have a larger part of the voltage and output terminal itself will decline voltage.

The working principle speaker driver circuit is actually very simple and easy to understand. Where the input signal is only used as a trigger to move the second driver transistor to the rhythm of the input signal. While the current that would flow to the loudspeaker most of the power supply driver circuit. You could say similar to the use of transistors as switches. Therefore, in this speaker series driver not found a combination of resistors for reinforcement. So if we look at the picture above, so most of the current flowing in the loudspeaker load is derived from the 9 volt supply voltage, instead of the input ac signal, so that the input signal will not be burdened.

Emergency Lights Circuit

The series of emergency lights on this one is a series of emergency lighting is quite simple and not difficult to make. 

Emergency Lights Circuit

Frankly this circuit is not my own design, but at least this series can add to your collection of electronic circuits. The circuit is actually almost the same as the battery charger circuit, it's just that in this emergency coupled switching circuit as a circuit breaker when the circuit load is connected to the supply voltage of 220 volts or in other words on the charging position. Meanwhile, when the voltage of 220 volts is lost (PLN lights off), then automatically switches the load switching circuit and turn on emergency lights, where the supply that is used is derived from batteries that have been installed in stand-by position.

In a series of emergencies over the use of LED as a lighting load emergency. And indeed these days we find a lot of emergency lights that are sold in the market that use LEDs, but the LED is used instead led carelessly but has led a gleam of light. The advantages of the use of this led the led is very efficient because once will consume battery power so that with a limited supply to run the series in a long time.

Circuit components used for emergency lighting is not too much, and indeed the components used are the components that are commonly used as components for circuit switching power supply and battery charging. IC LM 317 ic regulator is useful as a producer of supply voltage to supply the batteries. Transistor T2 (BD 140) is useful as switching, ie, decide the flow toward the load at 220 volts PLN lamp life so that lighting will be extinguished. But when the lights PLN did not provide the supply voltage of the transistor T2 will connect the connection from the battery to the load light.

Components used:
Resistors: R1 (180 uhm), R2 (1.2 K), sd R3 R14 (100 ohms), R15 (1 K) and R16 (16 ohm, 5 watt)
Capacitors: C1 (1000 UF)
Diodes: D1 until D5 (IN 4007)
Transistors: T1 (BC 548) and T2 (BD 140)
Zener Diodes 6.8 Volt
IC: LM 317
Battery charger
Transformer
If you are not happy using this type of charger with IC LM317 series like the example above then you can use another type of charger circuit that you think is more appropriate and can work optimally. Then you simply add the switching function by using one or more transistors.

12VDC to 220V AC 500W Inverter Circuit

Circuit Inverter 500 Watt 12VDC to 220VAC is made using a transistor.
The basiccally of the circuit Inverter 12VDC to 220VAC 500 Watt This is a configuration of 2 pieces of transistors Q1 and Q2 which form a series of Flip-Flop. The output of the flip-flop Q1 and Q2 in the circuit Inverter 12VDC to 220VAC 500 Watt is then broken down for each pulse to complement each other using a series compiled by Q3 and Q4. Output which complement each other is then given to the driver transistors Q5 and Q6 form the transistor 2SC1061. Series Inverter Power Inverter from 12VDC to 220VAC 500 Watt This is a series of parallel transistors Q7 and Q8 are prepared and Q7x and Q8x the form of power with a type 2N3055 transistor 10 pieces. drawing a complete range of circuit Inverter 12VDC to 220VAC 500 Watts can be seen as follows.

12VDC to 220V AC 500W Inverter Circuit

Step up part of the Circuit Inverter 12VDC to 220VAC 500 Watt 12V CT uses 12V transformer in the secondary and primary 0 - 220V. Working frequency of the Circuit Inverter 12VDC to 220VAC 500 Watt is determined by the flip-flop which is set to 50 Hz.

Multiplexer with CMOS IC 4556

In addition to the family of TTL ICs that support the function of a multiplexer is a family of CMOS ICs.

Despite the fact it is the family of TTL ICs that support more functions than the CMOS multiplexer. For the working principle of the multiplexer IC CMOS family is actually tantamount to a multiplexer circuit, or IC TTL logic gates. That should be all referring to the real multiplexer function, namely the determination of output lines which represent the number of input lines. The use of symbols is possible between TTL and CMOS IC has a different but actually run the same rules. For your reference if you are interested in using family of CMOS IC 4556 series in particular, I include also the truth table below:


INPUT
OUTPUT
E
A0
A1
O0
O1
O2
O3
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
H
L
H
L
H
H
H
H
H
L
H
X
X
H
H
H
H
L = LOW
H = HIGH

Multiplexer with TTL IC 74251

Actually you can not bother to design a multiplexer using logic gates because it has many special IC which functioned for a multiplexer.

One of the TTL ICs from the family that you can use to fulfill the function of a multiplexer is IC 74 251. At the IC there are 8 input channels and 3-bit selector and the other lane as a control reset and inverting output. As a note if you are using TTL ICs for your electronic circuit, the voltage supply that is allowed a maximum of 5 volts. So you can be more familiar with the workings of this multiplexer ic, IC74251 consider the truth table below:


C
B
A
G
Y
W
X
X
X
1
Z
Z
0
0
0
0
D0
D0’
0
0
1
0
D1
D1’
0
1
0
0
D2
D2’
0
1
1
0
D3
D3’
1
0
0
0
D4
D4’
1
0
1
0
D5
D5’
1
1
0
0
D6
D6’
1
1
1
0
D7
D7’
Z = High impedance (off)
D0,D1…D7 = Representing the output of the input lines D